We're invited by the Design school of Taylor's University to pay a visit at CoDA, there was a talk by Lecturer Kevin Todd, the purpose of the Chroma 256 Project is to create an awareness of the complexity of our relationship and use of colour and to explore whether a standardisation is occurring due to computer-based technologies, both in terms of the internet and in the teaching of design, where software has also become international. Colour is at once simple and complex, something that can be ephemeral or concrete, experienced and imagined; part culture, science and personal preference. Colour is a primary component of human communication and can signify, express or suppress emotions, status, sexuality, class and power, etc. However, the colour experience of the current generation of design students (digital natives) has assumed an international dimension and standardisation due to the proliferation of the internet and the extent to which the technical parameters of media have influenced colour display. Chroma256 is a project developed to explore relationships to colour in an international context, a simple idea with a complex outcome; part culture, research and personal expression. The project involves design students in Australia, China, Turkey, Ecuador, South Africa, India, Germany and the United States undertaking the same colour project with the outcome being exhibited in each country.
Art Movement: Fauvism
The first of the major avant-garde movements in European 20th century art, Fauvism was characterised by paintings that used intensely vivid, non-naturalistic and exuberant colours.
The style was essentially expressionist, and generally featured landscapes in which forms were distorted. The Fauves first exhibited together in 1905 in Paris. They found their name when a critic pointed to a renaissance-like sculpture in the middle of the same gallery as the exhibition and exclaimed derisively ‘Donatello au milieu des fauves!’ (‘Donatello among the wild beasts!’). The name caught on, and was gleefully accepted by the artists themselves.
The movement was subjected to more mockery and abuse as it developed, but began to gain respect when major art buyers, such as Gertrude Stein, took an interest. The leading artists involved were Matisse, Rouault, Derain, Vlaminck, Braque and Dufy. Although short-lived (1905-8), Fauvism was extremely influential in the evolution of 20th century art.
Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The Green Stripe), 1906, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark
Besides Matisse and Derain, other artists included Albert Marquet, Charles Carmion, Louis Valtat, the Belgian painter Henri Evenepoel, Maurice Marinot, Karl Pärsimägi, Jean Puy, Maurice de Vlaminck, Henri Manguin, Raoul Dufy, Othon Friesz, Georges Rouault, Jean Metzinger, the Dutch painter Kees van Dongen and Georges Braque (subsequently Picasso's partner in Cubism).
Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris. Although the term abstract expressionism was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates, it had been first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, regarding German Expressionism. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky.
Jean-Paul Riopelle, 1951, Untitled, oil on canvas, 54 x 64.7 cm (21 1/4 x 25 1/2 in.), private collection
Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists works, most of these paintings involved careful planning, especially since their large size demanded it. With artists such as Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Emma Kunz, and later on Rothko, Barnett Newman, and Agnes Martin, abstract art clearly implied expression of ideas concerning the spiritual, the unconscious, and the mind.
Art Movement: Figurative Art
Figurative art is itself based upon a tacit understanding of abstracted shapes: the figure sculpture of Greek antiquity was not naturalistic, for its forms were idealized and geometric. Ernst Gombrich referred to the strictures of this schematic imagery, the adherence to that which was already known, rather than that which is seen, as the "Egyptian method", an allusion to the memory-based clarity of imagery in Egyptian art. Eventually idealization gave way to observation, and a figurative art which balanced ideal geometry with greater realism was seen in Classical sculpture by 480 B.C. The Greeks referred to the reliance on visual observation as mimesis. Until the time of the Impressionists, figurative art was characterized by attempts to reconcile these opposing principles. From the early Renaissance, Mannerism and the Baroque through 18th-, 19th- and 20th-century painting Figurative art has steadily broadened its parameters. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), a French painter in the classical style whose work predominantly features clarity, logic, and order, and favors line over color, served as an alternative to the more narrative Baroque style of the 17th century. He was a major inspiration for such classically oriented artists as Jacques-Louis David, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Paul Cézanne. The rise of the Neoclassical art of Jacques-Louis David ultimately engendered the realistic reactions of Gustave Courbet and Édouard Manet leading to the multi-faceted figurative art of the 20th century.
During Semester 1, I had learned one of the subject which is printmaking. Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print produced is not considered a "copy" but rather is considered an "original". This is because typically each print varies to an extent due to variables intrinsic to the printmaking process, and also because the imagery of a print is typically not simply a reproduction of another work but rather is often a unique image designed from the start to be expressed in a particular printmaking technique. A print may be known as an impression. Printmaking (other than monotyping) is not chosen only for its ability to produce multiple impressions, but rather for the unique qualities that each of the printmaking processes lends itself to.Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a prepared screen to a sheet of paper or other material. Common types of matrices include: metal plates, usually copper or zinc, or polymer plates for engraving or etching; stone, aluminum, or polymer for lithography; blocks of wood for woodcuts and wood engravings; and linoleum for linocuts. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screenprinting process. Other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the same matrix form an edition. Since the late 19th century, artists have generally signed individual impressions from an edition and often number the impressions to form a limited edition; the matrix is then destroyed so that no more prints can be produced. Prints may also be printed in book form, such as illustrated books or artist's books.
Assignment 1: CTX Essay
For our first assignment of Contextual Studies, we are required to find a movie which has a strong relationship to one of the art movement. An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time or with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movements were especially important in modern art, when each consecutive movement was considered as a new avant-garde. I choose ‘Snow White’ that include one art movement and that’s illustration. An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of text, concept or process, designed for integration in published media, such as posters, flyers, magazines, books, teaching materials, animations, video games and film. And it is really attractive for people to keep an eye on it. I had chosen ‘Snow White’ for this assignment it is because when I’m young, I used to be a ‘Disney Channel’ fans and why ‘Snow White’ had come up to my mind? It is because the movie had taught me that we can appeal to the goodness in everyone and it’s wonderful to have friends and also the real beauty comes from within and don’t talk to strangers or don’t let them enter your house.
At first, there was a beautiful young queen sits sewing at an open window during winter snowfall when she pricks her finger with her needle, causing three drops of red blood to drip onto the freshly fallen white snow on the black windowsill. Then, she wished that she had a daughter that had skin as white as snow, lips as red as blood, as hair as black as ebony. Sometime later, the queen gives birth to a baby daughter whom she names Snow White but dies shortly thereafter. A year later, Snow White’s father, the King, takes a second wife, who is very beautiful but wicked and vain woman. The new queen, Snow White’s evil stepmother, possesses a magic mirror, which she asks every morning, “mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest one of all?” The mirror always replies: “My Queen, you are the fairest one of all.” The Queen is always pleased with that because the magic mirror never lies. But as Snow White grow up, she becomes more beautiful each day and even more beautiful than the Queen, and when Queen asks her mirror, it says:” My Queen, you are the fairest here so true but Snow White is a thousand times more beautiful than you.”
This gives the queen a great shock. She becomes envious, and that moment on she hates Snow White more and more, she even orders a huntsman to kill Snow White in the deepest woods but the huntsman finds himself unable to kill her and he spares her life. He told Snow White that the Queen wants her dead and ask her to get far away from the kingdom as possible. He instead brings the Queen the heart of a wild animal. This movie has reflected that you can appeal to the goodness in everyone. For example, when the Evil Queen ordered the huntsman to kill Snow White, he failed, not because he was incapable but because Snow White appealed to the goodness in him.
While wandering through the forest, Snow White discovers a tiny cottage that belongs to the Seven Dwarfs, since no one is at home, she eats some of the tiny meals, drinks wine and falls asleep on one of the bed. When the Seven Dwarfs return home, the discover the sleeping Snow White. She wakes up and explains to them what happened, and the Seven Dwarfs take pity on her and let her stay with them in exchange for housekeeping. They also warn Snow White to be careful when alone at home and to let no one in when they are away delving in the mountains. From this incidence, I had learnt that it’s wonderful to have friends. For example, the Seven Dwarfs let Snow White to stay with them after listen to her explanation and ask her to be careful while alone in the house.
Meanwhile, the Queen asks her mirror the same question once again and the mirror replies: “My queen, you are the fairest here so true. But Snow White beyond the mountains at the Seven Dwarfs is a thousand times more beautiful than you.” At this moment, the Queen realize that the huntsman had betrayed her and that Snow White is still alive. So she plans the removal of Snow White by disguising herself into an old hag. The Queen then walks to the cottage where Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs stay at. She offers Snow White a poisoned apple that put people into the “Sleeping Death”, a curse can only be broken by” love’s first kiss”. As Snow White falls asleep the Queen proclaims that she is now the fairest of the land. As the dwarfs and the animals return, they chase the queen and trap her on a cliff. She was dead after the lightning strikes the cliff and causing her to fall to her death. Thru this incidence, I had learnt that we shouldn’t let strangers in our house.
A year later, a prince, who had previously met and fallen in love with Snow White, learns of her eternal sleep and visits her coffin. Saddened by her apparent death, he kisses her, which breaks the spell and awakens her. The dwarfs and animals all rejoice as the Prince takes Snow White to his castle.
I'm sure I watched Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs as a kid, but I barely remember watching it back then. The earliest memory of me watching this was when I was like six. I love Snow a lot. I think Snow White is incredibly underrated, and she's in my top ten Disney characters. When she finds out her stepmother wants to kill her, she remains positive and keeps a smile on her face for the majority of the film. She has a very layered personality, she is motherly and sweet, at the can be bossy and manipulative! She is more than some people make her out to be.
Thru this movie, I found out that the sentences that spoke out from Snow White are so meaningful, such as “when the raindrops come tumbling, remember you are the one who can fill the world with sunshine”. Which mean when we are in the midst of hardship, we shouldn’t keep ourselves down because we are the only person who can control our future. Next, Snow White has taught us that even we feel grumpy, we need to “say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ too”. Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a battle that you know nothing. You can’t blame people that being rude to you because everyone is struggling with their own problems, so we must try to view from other’s people point. Last, she taught us that we can stay positive in a situation by singing a song. We can’t always be stressing ourselves by staying negative, we need to stay positive, so our life will be much easier.
Did you know that every characters on Snow White symbolize real people in real world or to be specific based on the real people and event? The idea alongside with story line itself to teach all of us something after watching it. Disney is known with wonderful tales for kids because of the characters that have their own remarkable attitude, that is why some of us still remember what it felt to feel like a princess and know how to act like a princess through watching the movie. The impact of the characters hit us so hard that every time we do something, some of us would think of their favorite character. By knowing the character, we can adapt the goods to ourselves. This is why Disney try as hard as possible to create a great childhood experience for children by telling them these tales.
Start of with Snow White, the main character. She is lovable character; I don't think anyone would ever hate her. Basically Snow White represent ourselves. What does it mean? It means Snow White represent our youth. In the youth, we are so vulnerable and isn't compatible to make a big decision by ourselves yet. So I think, Snow White is a perfect example that, she is us in our youth. She is young, she has many things ahead of her, she has problems to cope with, and she is rebel sometimes. The characteristic on her is the same as the youngster because we are still figuring everything out and at the same time learning what life is about. Next, the Queen itself represent our problem. We can run from it but it will always chase us and make us confront it no matter what. It doesn't matter what kind of problem, it could be family related problem, love such as friendship or relationship, even love towards animals. In this case, it shown that the problem will goes away within time. Don't let our problem hold us down from doing anything that we want to do especially our goal in life.
The dwarfs represent our friends. There are many types of friends in real life, it relies on us to choose who to be friend with. Some saying that friend is a mirror to ourselves. Indeed, it's true. Because our friend's behavior reflects on us too. In this life, we can have many friends that support us and always be positive towards us but we have to be careful for the vice versa. Through this movie, the dwarfs were all good and nice towards Snow, so we have to find a group of good people to have a good life and we have to be good to ourselves as well. Magic mirror symbolize our family. They always going to tell us the truth. They will not sugarcoat us with beautiful lies. You can witness on the movie that the mirror keep telling the Queen the truth so does our family. If we have a problem or confession to make to our family, they will always give us the honest response. We need more truth in our life so that we can fix what is broken in us and change from negative to positive.
In a nutshell, ’Snow White’ has a strong relationship with illustration that always keep the audience’s eyes on it. It left some important messages for us so that we can appeal to the goodness in everyone. Next, it’s wonderful to have friends and also the real beauty comes from within. Lastly, don’t talk to strangers or don’t let them enter your house. ‘Snow White’ is a really good animation movie for all of the people around the world because it includes lots valuable lessons that we need to have in our life.
Art Movement: Romanticism
Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, and the natural sciences] It had a significant and complex effect on politics, and while for much of the Romantic period it was associated with liberalism and radicalism, its long-term effect on the growth of nationalism was perhaps more significant.
The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu). In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism.
Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism. The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism.
Art Movement: Realism (arts)
Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.
Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism.
There have been various realism movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism and Italian neorealist cinema. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution. The realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century.
Lego is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark. The company's flagship product, Lego, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks accompanying an array of gears, figurines called minifigures, and various other parts. Lego pieces can be assembled and connected in many ways, to construct objects; vehicles, buildings, and working robots. Anything constructed can then be taken apart again, and the pieces used to make other objects.
The Lego Group began manufacturing the interlocking toy bricks in 1949. Since then a global Lego subculture has developed. Supporting movies, games, competitions, and six Legoland amusement parks have been developed under the brand. As of July 2015, 600 billion Lego parts had been produced.
In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as Brand Finance's "world's most powerful brand".
Play-Doh is a modeling compound used by young children for art and craft projects at home and in school. Composed of flour, water, salt, boric acid, and mineral oil, the product was first manufactured in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, as a wallpaper cleaner in the 1930s. The product was reworked and marketed to Cincinnati schools in the mid-1950s. Play-Doh was demonstrated at an educational convention in 1956 and prominent department stores opened retail accounts. Advertisements promoting Play-Doh on influential children's television shows in 1957 furthered the product's sales. Since its launch on the toy market in the mid-1950s, Play-Doh has generated a considerable amount of ancillary merchandise such as The Fun Factory. In 2003, the Toy Industry Association named Play-Doh in its "Century of Toys List".
Museum für Naturkunde
During the study trip that organised by The Design School, Taylor's University to Berlin, Germany, we had visited to a museum. The Museum für Naturkunde (MfN), occasionally called the Naturkundemuseum or Humboldt-Museum for short, (officially: Museum für Naturkunde – Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung), is a natural history museum in Berlin, Germany. The museum houses more than 30 million zoological, paleontological, and mineralogical specimens, including more than ten thousand type specimens. It is famous for two spectacular exhibits: the largest mounted dinosaur in the world, and an exquisitely preserved specimen of the earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx.
Established in 1810, it is the largest museum of natural history in Germany. The museum's mineral collections date back to the Prussian Academy of Sciences of 1700. Important historic zoological specimens include those recovered by the German deep-sea Valdiva expedition (1898–99), the German Southpolar Expedition (1901–03), and the German Sunda Expedition (1929–31). Expeditions to fossil beds in Tendaguru in former Deutsch Ostafrika (today Tanzania) unearthed rich paleontological treasures. The collections are so extensive that less than 1 in 5000 specimens is exhibited, and they attract researchers from around the world.
Additional exhibits include a mineral collection representing 75% of the minerals in the world, a large meteor collection, the largest piece of amber in the world; exhibits of the now-extinct quagga, huia, and tasmanian tiger, and "Bobby" the gorilla, a Berlin Zoo celebrity from the 1920s and 1930s.
And also during the trip, we had visited to The Alte Nationalgalerie (Old National Gallery) in Berlin. Late Nationalgalerie is a gallery showing a collection of Neoclassical, Romantic, Biedermeier, Impressionist and early Modernist artwork, part of the Berlin National Gallery, which in turn is part of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. It is the original building of the National Gallery, whose holdings are now housed in several additional buildings. It is situated on Museum Island, a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site.
The Reichstag building is a historical edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag), of the German Empire. It was opened in 1894 and housed the Diet until 1933, when it was severely damaged after it was set on fire. After World War II, the building fell into disuse; the parliament of the German Democratic Republic (the Volkskammer) met in the Palast der Republik in East Berlin, while the parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany (the Bundestag) met in the Bundeshaus in Bonn.
The ruined building was made safe against the elements and partially refurbished in the 1960s, but no attempt at full restoration was made until after German reunification on 3 October 1990, when it underwent a reconstruction led by architect Norman Foster. After its completion in 1999, it once again became the meeting place of the German parliament: the modern Bundestag.
The term Reichstag, when used to connote a diet, dates back to the Holy Roman Empire. The building was built for the Diet of the German Empire, which was succeeded by the Reichstag of the Weimar Republic. The latter would become the Reichstag of Nazi Germany, which left the building (and ceased to act as a parliament) after the 1933 fire and never returned; the term Reichstag has not been used by German parliaments since World War II. In today's usage, the German word Reichstag (Imperial Diet Building) refers mainly to the building, while Bundestag (Federal Diet) refers to the institution.
Assignment 2: Story
Drug- reality Friend- good or bad Queen- problem
Aisha came from a single family and she already started her form 5 which was the senior year that she was always excited about. She was worried about her addmath because that subject has created a border for her from achieving straight A's because she needed an excellent results to get scholarship. While she was worried about her problem, her bestfriend, Ahmad told her not to worry about it, just follow the steps that given by teacher and do more exercise. On one particular day, while Aisha and Ahmad was having recess, Joan passes by and sat next to Ahmad. Joan was a student who went to nightclub every week and she has lots of friends which were low educated and didn't care much about education. Joan saw Aisha was so stressed out over the addmath questions, so she invited Aisha to go somewhere to release her stress with some few tips that crafted her life all along and Aisha was in doubt at first but then she said yes to Joan. Of course Ahmad tried to stop her but she sterned with her decision, plus Aisha wanted to try something new in her life. In the evening, Joan drove Aisha to a place which she never been before. Joan passed a cup of drink which she already added some drugs inside and let Aisha drank. An hour later, Aisha felt herself was getting hype and much more happier and she was not even worrying about her upcoming final exam. On that same day, Joan gave Aisha a small pack of drugs. 3 months later, the result has been released, Aisha scored well in her exam and her mum was so proud of her. Aisha decided to celebrate at the pub, while having fun in the pub, suddenly there was a police passed by the pub and watched Aisha picking up a pack of drugs, so he brought Aisha to police station. Aisha was locked up for 9months as she was examined that she took and own a pack of drugs. During these 9months, Aisha finally realise that drugs can't really help her to escape or settle the problem and she felt sorry to her mum and promise that she won't do it anymore.
The Computerspielemuseum opened the first permanent exhibition in the world for digital interactive entertainment culture in 1997 in Berlin. After that, it became responsible for 30 national and international exhibitions. Among these was the project "pong.mythos" sponsored by the German Federal Cultural Foundation, Germany's most successful traveling exhibition in the history of computer games. In the last five years, over 470,000 visitors have seen this exhibition. The museum contains around 16,000 game titles, around 10,000 technical magazines, many historical home computers and console systems, which were sold in Europe, and an extensive amount of other documents, for example: videos, posters and handbooks. It contains one of the largest collections of entertainment software and hardware in Europe.
The Computerspielemuseum's collection is the property of the Booster Club for Youth and Social Work. The new museum itself is run by Gameshouse gGmbH. Building the new permanent exhibition was financed by the German Lottery Fund in Berlin and from the Cultural Investment Program of Berlin's Cultural Affairs Department, so the ERDF.
There are over 300 interactive exhibits illustrating the cultural history of computer gaming. One is the highlights is an actual video arcade from the 1980s with authentic arcade games from the decade that launched video games into popular culture. All console game systems are on display from the original Magnavox Odyssey from 1972 to more recent household devices like the Nintendo systems and all versions of the PlayStation family. An original exhibit in the museum is called the "PainStation", where the loser of the game is subject to physical punishment such as heat or a mild electric shock.
The Brandenburg Gate is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, and one of the best-known landmarks of Germany. It is built on the site of a former city gate that marked the start of the road from Berlin to the town of Brandenburg an der Havel.
It is located in the western part of the city centre of Berlin within Mitte, at the junction of Unter den Linden and Ebertstraße, immediately west of the Pariser Platz. One block to the north stands the Reichstag building, which houses the German parliament (Bundestag). The gate is the monumental entry to Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees, which led directly to the royal City Palace of the Prussian monarchs.
Throughout its existence, the Brandenburg Gate was often a site for major historical events and is today considered not only as a symbol of the tumultuous history of Europe and Germany, but also of European unity and peace.
The Berlinische Galerie was founded in 1975 as a society devoted to exhibiting art from Berlin. For the first few years it was based in an office in Charlottenburg, and its exhibitions were displayed at the Akademie der Künste and the New National Gallery among others. In 1978 the Galerie moved into a former landwehr officers' mess (now the Museum of Photography) on Jebensstraße, near Zoo Station. In 1986 it moved again, into the Martin-Gropius-Bau. In 1994 the collection became a public-law foundation.
In 1998 the Berlinische Galerie had to leave the Martin-Gropius-Bau due to reconstruction. After six years without a permanent home, it opened in its new location, in former industrial premises in Kreuzberg, in 2004. Built in 1965, the current building was originally a glass warehouse, and took the Galerie a year to renovate. The museum reopened again in 2015 following a €6 million refurbishment that mainly involved updating the museum’s security and technical equipment.
Art Movement: Dada
Dada was many things, but it was essentially an anti-war movement in Europe and New York from 1915 to 1923. It was an artistic revolt and protest against traditional beliefs of a pro-war society, and also fought against sexism/racism to a lesser degree. The word "dada" was picked at random out of a dictionary, and is actually the French word for "hobbyhorse".
The most widely accepted account of the movement's naming concerns a meeting held in 1916 at Hugo Ball's Cabaret (Café) Voltaire in Zürich, during which a paper knife inserted into a French-German dictionary pointed to the word "dada".
The European movement was started in 1915 in Zurich by sculptor Hans Arp, film-maker Hans Richter, and poet Tristan Tzara.
By the end of World War I, Dada was very popular in the German cities Berlin, Cologne and Hanover, expressing the view of many Germans at the time that the war was folly. The artists included: Raoul Hausmann, John Heartfield, Max Ernst, Kurt Schwitters, Otto Dix, and George Grosz (Dix and Grosz later became part of the Neue Sachlichkeit movement). The German artists released the issued Dada publications: Club Dada, Der Dada, Jedermann sein eigner Fussball ("Everyman His Own Football"), and Dada Almanach.
The New York art movement arose almost independently. The movement was centered at Alfred Stieglitz's gallery, "291," and at the studio of the Walter Arensbergs. Its leaders were: Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, and Francis Picabia. The New York counterpart tended to be more whimsical and less about the violence that was happening overseas.
Picabia founded a Dada periodical called "391" in Barcelona and introduced the Dada movement to Paris in 1919. Most notable among the French Dada pamphlets and reviews was 'Littérature' (published 1919-24), which contained writings by André Breton, Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, and Paul Éluard. The Paris Dada movement later evolved into Surrealism by 1924.
During the trip in Berlin, Germany, I had tried to taste their traditional food, pretzel. Pretzel (German: Brezel) is a type of baked bread product made from dough most commonly shaped into a twisted knot. Pretzels originated in Europe, possibly among monks in the Early Middle Ages. The traditional pretzel shape is a distinctive nonsymmetrical form, with the ends of a long strip of dough intertwined and then twisted back into itself in a certain way ("a pretzel loop"). Pretzels now come in different shapes. Salt is the most common seasoning for pretzels, complementing the washing soda or lye treatment that gives pretzels their traditional "skin" and flavor through the Maillard reaction; other seasonings include sugars, chocolate, glazes, seeds, and/or nuts.
Currywurst is a fast food dish of German origin consisting of steamed, then fried pork sausage (German: Bratwurst) typically cut into slices and seasoned with curry ketchup, a sauce based on spiced ketchup or tomato paste, itself topped with curry powder, or a ready-made ketchup seasoned with curry and other spices. The dish is often served with French fries.
Spätzle, the most famous German dish, is completely vegetarian. Spätzle are a kind of pasta, but the dough only consists of eggs, flour, salt and a hint of fizzy water (in order to fluff up the dough). Spätzle are traditionally served as a side dish to meaty dishes (like Schnitzel) or can even be a main dish themselves. The most famous way of preparing Spätzle is to top it with a huge amount of cheese (mountain cheese for the taste and some Limburger for the consistency). Spätzle originally come from the area around Stuttgart and are part of most Swabian dishes.
The most famous version of Schnitzel is definitely the Wiener Schnitzel, which is a thinly sliced piece of veal-meat, covered with flour, egg and bread crumbs and then deep fried in oil or a lot of butter until it turn golden on the outside. Also very tasty is the Schnitzel Wiener Art, which is basically the same but with pork meat. But there are many more options on how to prepare a Schnitzel which range from chicken breast to soja to blocks of cheese.
Gulasch is a soup or stew of meat and vegetables, seasoned with paprika and other spices. Which I love the most! Originating from the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, gulasch is also a popular meal in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Southern Europe.Its origin traces back to the 9th century to stews eaten by Hungarian shepherds. Back then, the cooked and flavored meat was dried with the help of the sun and packed into bags produced from sheep's stomachs, needing only water to make it into a meal. It is one of the national dishes of Hungary and a symbol of the country.
Clifford The Big Red Dog
Clifford the Big Red Dog is an eponymously titled American children's book series about a giant red dog named Clifford. It was first published in 1963 and was written by Norman Bridwell (1928–2014). The series helped establish Scholastic as a premier publishing company,and Clifford himself is Scholastic's official mascot. -Clifford: a male red dog whose appearance, disposition, and behavior are based on a giant "all-around" dog. Clifford is shy, gentle, friendly, loyal, lovable, clumsy, well-meaning and helpful. He sometimes gets into trouble because of his size or is tempted into trouble by his friends and those he meets. His size, like giants in medieval legends, is inconsistent—he is often shown as being about 25 feet tall from paws to head, but can appear far larger: For example, in one episode of the show, he removes the top of a lighthouse and swims out with it to guide a ferry through the fog to the dock. The character's name is based on the imaginary childhood friend of creator Norman Bridwell's wife. He originally wanted to name him "Tiny", but his wife persuaded him otherwise. His owner is Emily Elizabeth, to whom he is devoted. He has a mother, two brothers, and two sisters. His character was created when an editor at Harper & Row advised Bridwell to write a story to go along with one of his pictures. She picked out his sketch of a baby girl and a horse-sized bloodhound and casually said, "There might be a story in this," Bridwell remembers. -Emily Elizabeth: Clifford's owner. A friendly, curious, and helpful eight-year-old girl. She is frequently portrayed riding on his bare back. She is the best skater on the island, and is also very good at soccer. She was named for creator Norman Bridwell's daughter and based on the imaginary adventures of Bridwell's wife. The TV series adaptation gives her a surname, Emily Elizabeth Howard, and changes the background, with her receiving Clifford as a surprise present on her 6th birthday instead of picking him out as a Christmas present.
Hi-5 are an Australian children's musical group formed in 1998, who are associated with the children's television series of the same name. As of December 2016, the members are Lachie Dearing, Courtney Clarke, Shay Clifford, Joe Kalou and Bailey Spalding. The group is aimed at preschoolers, composed of five performers who entertain and educate children through music, movement and play. Hi-5 was created by Helena Harris and Posie Graeme-Evans, initially a television series for the Nine Network, which premiered in 1999. The cast of the show became a recognised musical group for children.
The original members were Kellie Crawford, Kathleen de Leon Jones, Nathan Foley, Tim Harding and Charli Robinson. Four of their albums reached the top 10 on the ARIA Albums Chart, It's a Party (No. 4, July 2000), Boom Boom Beat (No. 3, August 2001), It's a Hi-5 Christmas (No. 4, December 2001) and Hi-5 Hits (No. 10, July 2003). This line-up had been completely phased out by the end of 2008, following de Leon Jones, who left on maternity leave in 2006. The membership has since changed several times. The brand has produced numerous television series, music albums, worldwide tours and merchandise. The appeal of the group overseas has led to international versions. The television series features puppet characters Chatterbox and Jup Jup, who are popular associates of the group and are included in the live stage shows.
Hi-5 were one of Australia's highest paid entertainment entities, placing in the Business Review Weekly's annual list several times, earning an estimated A$18million in 2009. The members of Hi-5 are employees of the brand and do not hold equity. Their albums have been certified by ARIA as double platinum (It's a Party), platinum (Jump and Jive with Hi-5, Boom Boom Beat, It's a Hi-5 Christmas) and gold (Celebrate). By 2004 the original line-up had received five consecutive Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) Music Awards in the same category, Best Children's Album, a then-record. By that time they had also received three Logie Television Awards for Most Outstanding Children's Program. Foley stated that Hi-5 set a benchmark for a new style of non-traditional children's entertainment. Hi-5 broke into the South East Asian market after the brand was sold by the Nine Network in 2012. Nine renewed its partnership with the franchise in 2016.
Dondurma (literally Turkish for "freezing") is the name given to ice cream in Turkey and Azerbaijan. Dondurma typically includes the ingredients milk, sugar, salep, and mastic. It is believed to originate from the city and region of Maraş and hence also known as Maraş Ice Cream. Dondurma is commonly sold from both street vendor's carts and store fronts where the mixture is churned regularly with long-handled paddles to keep it workable. Vendors often tease the customer by serving the ice cream cone on a stick, and then taking away the dondurma with the stick by rotating it around, before finally giving it to the customer. This sometimes results in misunderstandings among customers unfamiliar with the practice. As of 2010, the average rate of consumption in Turkey was 2.8 liters of ice cream per person per year (compared to the USA at 18.3 liters per person in 2007, and world consumption leader New Zealand at 22–23 liters in 2006). Some Turks adhere to a belief that cold foods, such as ice cream, will cause illnesses - such as sore throats and the common cold; it is held that consumption of warm liquid while consuming ice cream will counteract these effects. The popularity of salepli dondurma has caused a decline of wild orchids in the region and led to a ban on exports of salep. Dondurma is also consumed in Greece, especially in the north of the country, where it is called "Dudurmas" or "Kaimaki".
Nasi lemak is a Malay fragrant rice dish cooked in coconut milk and pandan leaf. It is commonly found in Malaysia, where it is considered the national dish; it is also popular in neighbouring areas such as Singapore; Riau Islands, Brunei, and Southern Thailand. Nasi Lemak can also be found in the Bangsamoro region of Mindanao prepared by Filipino Moro. It is considered one of the most famous dishes for a Malay-style breakfast. It is not to be confused with nasi dagang, sold in the Malaysian east coast states of Terengganu and Kelantan, although both dishes are often served for breakfast. However, because nasi lemak can be served in a variety of ways, it is often eaten throughout the day.
Teh tarik (literally "pulled tea") is a hot milk tea beverage which can be commonly found in restaurants, outdoor stalls and kopi tiams within the Southeast Asian countries of Malaysia and Singapore. Its name is derived from the pouring process of "pulling" the drink during preparation. It is made from black tea, condensed milk or evaporated milk. Malaysia has considered the drink as the country national drink.
The origins of teh tarik can be traced to Indian-Muslim immigrants in the Malay Peninsula who set up drink stalls at the entrance of rubber plantations after World War II to serve the workers there. Since colonial times, Teh tarik has been a popular Malaysian Indian cuisine for several people in British Malaya and Singapore. Traditionally, teh tarik has been seen served with the Roti canai which has become a popular breakfast set by Malaysians until today.
An element of showmanship exists in the preparation of teh tarik. The ability to drag a long stream of tea above the heads of the patrons without giving them a shower is an amusing novelty for the locals and tourists alike. In Malaysia, there are occasions where teh tarik brewers gather for competitions and performances to show their skills. Teh tarik has become recognised along with nasi lemak as part of the food and beverage heritage of Malaysia by the Malaysian government ministry.
Assignment 3: Storyboard
Roti canai or roti cane is a type of Indian-influenced flatbread found in Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia and Singapore. It is often sold in Mamak stalls in Malaysia; also in Malay, Minangkabau and Aceh restaurants in Indonesia. It is known as roti prata in Southern Malaysia and Singapore, and is similar to the Indian Kerala porotta. It is also found throughout Thailand, where it is called "Ro Tee" and is typically sold by Muslims, most often from street carts, and is usually Halal.
In English and in Chinese, roti canai is sometimes referred to as "flying bread" (飞饼 fēibǐng), a term that evokes the process of tossing and spinning by which it is made. In Chinese, Roti canai is originally called 印度煎饼 "yìn dù jiān bǐng", which means Indian pancake.
Traditionally roti canai is served with dhal (lentil curry) or any type of curry, such as mutton or chicken curry. However, the versatility of roti canai as the staple lends itself to many variations, either savoury or sweet, with a variety of toppings and fillings, which includes eggs, banana, sardines and onion. In Thailand, it is usually served sweet - typical fillings include condensed milk, peanut butter, jam and nutella, without the curry.
Char Kway Teow
Char kway teow, literally "stir-fried ricecake strips", is a popular noodle dish in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Indonesia. The dish is considered a national favourite in Malaysia and Singapore.
It is made from flat rice noodles (河粉 hé fěn in Chinese) or kway teow (粿条 guǒ tiáo in Chinese) of approximately 1 cm or (in the north of Malaysia) about 0.5 cm in width, stir-fried over very high heat with light and dark soy sauce, chilli, a small quantity of belachan, whole prawns, deshelled blood cockles, bean sprouts and chopped Chinese chives. The dish is commonly stir-fried with egg, slices of Chinese sausage, fishcake, beansprouts, and less commonly with other ingredients. Char kway teow is traditionally stir-fried in pork fat, with crisp croutons of pork lard. In Penang, Char kway teow is commonly served on a piece of banana leaf on a plate, so as to enhance the aroma on the noodles.
Char kway teow has a reputation of being unhealthy due to its high saturated fat content. However, when the dish was first invented, it was mainly served to labourers. The high fat content and low cost of the dish made it attractive to these people as it was a cheap source of energy and nutrients. When the dish was first served, it was often sold by fishermen, farmers and cockle-gatherers who doubled as char kway teow hawkers in the evening to supplement their income.
Laksa is a popular spicy noodle soup in the Peranakan cuisine, which is a combination of Chinese and Malay cuisine. Laksa consists of rice noodles or rice vermicelli with chicken, prawn or fish, served in spicy soup; either based on rich and spicy curry coconut milk, or based on sour asam (tamarind or gelugur). It can be found in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Southern Thailand.
Bak Kut Teh
Bak-kut-teh is a pork rib dish cooked in broth popularly served in Malaysia and Singapore, where there is a predominant Hoklo and Teochew community, and also in neighbouring areas like the Sumatra, Indonesia and Southern Thailand.
The name literally translates from hokkien(dialect) as "meat bone tea", and at its simplest, consists of meaty pork ribs simmered in a complex broth of herbs and spices (including star anise, cinnamon, cloves, dang gui, fennel seeds and garlic) for hours. Despite its name, there is in fact no tea in the dish itself; the name refers to a strong oolong Chinese tea which is usually served alongside the soup in the belief that it dilutes or dissolves the copious amount of fat consumed in this pork-laden dish.
However, additional ingredients may include offal, varieties of mushroom, choy sum, and pieces of dried tofu or fried tofu puffs. Additional Chinese herbs may include yu zhu (玉竹, rhizome of Solomon's Seal) and ju zhi (buckthorn fruit), which give the soup a sweeter, slightly stronger flavor. Light and dark soy sauce are also added to the soup during cooking, with varying amounts depending on the variant - the Teochews version is lighter than the Hokkiens'. The dish can be garnished with chopped coriander or green onions and a sprinkling of fried shallots.
In Malaysia, it is often served with strips of fried dough called you char kueh (or 油條, 油条, youtiao, in Mandarin). Soy sauce (usually light soy sauce, but dark soy sauce is also offered sometimes) is preferred as a condiment, with which chopped chilli padi and minced garlic is taken together. Tea of various kinds, for example the Tieguanyin (鐵觀音, 铁观音) variety which is popular in the Klang Valley area of Malaysia, is also usually served in the belief that it dilutes or dissolves the copious amount of fat consumed in this pork-laden dish.Bak kut teh is typically eaten for breakfast, but may also be served as lunch. The Hokkien and Teochew are traditionally tea-drinking cultures and this aspect runs deep in their cuisines.
Hainanese Chicken Rice
Hainanese chicken rice is a dish adapted from early Chinese immigrants originally from Hainan province in southern China. It is considered one of the national dishes of Singapore. Hainanese chicken rice is most commonly associated with Singaporean, Malaysian and Hainanese cuisines, although it is also popular in Thailand and Vietnam. It is based on a well-known Hainanese dish called Wenchang chicken (文昌雞), due to its adoption by the Hainanese overseas Chinese population in the Nanyang area (present-day Southeast Asia). Catherine Ling of CNN describes Hainanese chicken rice as one of the "40 Singapore foods we can't live without". It also listed at number 45 on World's 50 most delicious foods compiled by CNN Go in 2011. In Malaysia, as in Singapore, chicken rice is available in many Chinese coffee shops, restaurants and street hawker stalls, and also in chain restaurants such as The Chicken Rice Shop and OldTown White Coffee.
Satay or sate in Indonesian and Malay spelling, is a dish of seasoned, skewered and grilled meat, served with a sauce. Satay may consist of diced or sliced chicken, goat, mutton, beef, pork, fish, other meats, or tofu; the more authentic version uses skewers from the midrib of the coconut palm frond, although bamboo skewers are often used. These are grilled or barbecued over a wood or charcoal fire, then served with various spicy seasonings. Satay can be served in various sauces, however most often they are served in a combination of soy and peanut sauce. Hence, peanut sauce are often called as satay sauce.
Satay originated in Java, Indonesia. It is available almost anywhere in Indonesia, where it has become a national dish. It is also popular in many other Southeast Asian countries, including Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Thailand, the Philippines, East Timor as well as in Suriname and the Netherlands, as Indonesia and Suriname are former Dutch colonies.
Satay is a very popular delicacy in Indonesia; the country's diverse ethnic groups' culinary arts (see Indonesian cuisine) have produced a wide variety of satays. In Indonesia, satay can be obtained from a travelling satay vendor, from a street-side tent-restaurant, in an upper-class restaurant, or during traditional celebration feasts. In Malaysia, satay is a popular dish—especially during celebrations—and can be found throughout the country. In Southern Philippines it is known as satti.
Close analogues are yakitori from Japan, shish kebab from Turkey and the Middle East, shashlik from the Caucasus, chuanr from China, and sosatie from South Africa. It is listed at number 14 on World's 50 most delicious foods readers' poll compiled by CNN Go in 2011.